Posted by: Ticktock | September 15, 2008

HOLLOW EARTH: A Monument To Ignorance!

Most Cincinnatians don’t know about the legacy of bad pseudoscience that one of our local “scholars” seared into the pages of world history, but nearly two centuries ago,  John Cleves Symmes Jr. and his his absurd Hollow Earth theory was nearly as popular and widespread as creationism is today.

The fact that most people today have never heard of “Hollow Earth” gives me hope for humanity.

When I brought up the deeply flawed Hollow Earth theory at the Phil Plait lecture this past weekend, I was pleasantly surprised to hear the old man sitting next to me tell me about the concrete hollow globe memorial to John Symmes Jr. in the Cincinnati suburb Symmes township.  The old man mockingly declared the thing pictured to the left “a monument to ignorance”.  Exactly!  Well played, sir.  Well played.

The Hollow Earth theory started innocently enough.  The concept was the brainchild of astronomer Edmond Halley (you know him as the comet guy!).  Halley theorized that there must be (possibly inhabitable) concentric inner spheres with luminous atmospheres spinning at different rates within the crust of the Earth.  Halley was attempting to explain certain mysteries of magnetism and also the northern lights.  Other scholars elaborated on Halley’s theory, including the Swiss mathemetician Leonard Euler, who imagined a vast inner sun providing heat and light for an advanced civilization that lives there.

It wasn’t long after Halley and others theorized about Hollow Earth that some of the first ever science fiction fantasy novels were published about it, starting with the satirical Neils Klim’s Underground Travels written by Ludvig Holberg.  Holberg’s book started a series of books invoking strange utopian lands with odd creatures and customs.  A typical Hollow Earth novel was Symzonia:  A Voyage of Discovery by the pseudonymous Captain Adam Seaborn, which purported to tell the true tale of a journey to an inner earth.

Symzonia obviously contains in it’s title a reference to John Symmes Jr., a veteran of the war of 1812 who insisted that there were large holes at Earth’s north and south poles, and that if you entered these holes you would descend into an inner planet.  At the time, the arctic was a vast mystery in a post-exploration era, so it is no surprise that these theories existed.  Such legends and mysteries typically come at the confusing early stages of natural curiousity: aliens were popularized after flight and space travel, bigfoot followed the fossil discoveries of early hominids, and JFK and 9/11 government conspiracies respectively followed Watergate and lies about WMD.

Symmes lectured across the country about his theory.  He was either mocked and ignored or earnestly believed.  Yet, few really listened to his ideas until his disciple Jeremiah Reynolds petitioned the government to mount an expedition to Antartica.  Though the explorers didn’t find a utopian colony or an inner earth, they did come back with a true concept of Antartica’s continental scale.  Quite a discovery in the name of pseudoscience!  Reynolds is also famous for inspiring Herman Mellville’s Moby Dick novel after his tale of a whale called Mocha Dick (insert porn joke here).

Cyrus Teed developed his belief in Hollow Earth after being electrocuted.  In fact, he believed in cellular cosmogony – that we live inside a concave hollow Earth and that a night/day sun floats in the middle of a thick atmosphere.  In Teed’s imaginary world, gravity does not exist but is caused by centrifugal force.  It is said that our cartographic observations work equally well whether the Earth is convex or concave, so Teed was able to manipulate others using misleading scientific evidence.  Teed later developed a messiah complex, changed his name to Koresh, and started a utopian cult in Florida called Estero.  Any part of that sound familiar?

Hollow Earth inspired Jules Verne’s Journey to the Center of the Earth and Edgar Allen Poe’s The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket.  There are also Tarzan novels and Oz novels that are set in Hollow Earth.  In Dorothy and the Wizard of Oz, Henry Gale, the wizard of yellow brick road fame, crashlands on an inner Earth to rescue his niece and Dorothy.  Those of you familiar with LOST will instantly recognize that Henry Gale is the moniker that “others” mastermind Ben gives himself when he is captured by the castaways.  He uses a hot air balloon crash as his alibi too.  Not to add too much to this obvious red herring, but the writers named one of the characters in Hurley’s nuthouse Leonard Simms, a name oddly similar to the subject of this post.

Some people today still believe in Hollow Earth and are planning expeditions there.  In fact, they claim to see the Symmes Holes on satellite images.  Some of these people believe that Lemurian descendants of Atlantis live there, others believe that it is where the lost tribes of Israel live, others insist that you’ll only find UFO-flying nazis down there.  All these people are delusional.

Besides there not being one bit of concrete evidence for Hollow Earth, there are obvious reasons why such a an idea falls flat.  First, every volcano is a glimpse into Earth’s core of molten iron.  Second, magnetism can best be explained by the dynamo theory, a sloshing molten core caused by the Coreolis Effect.  Third, Phil Plait explained in yesterday’s post that gravity would compact a heavy outer crust rendering the idea impossible.  Hollow Earth theory also raises many more assumptions than would fit comfortably within ockham’s razor.  To top it off, there are no holes at the poles, there is no evidence of an inner sun nor a mechanism for such a sun, and the idea of an inner Earth contradicts every observation ever made since the inception of geology.

For more on the science and history of Hollow Earth check out the amazing book on the subject by David Standish.

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Responses

  1. An even better resource is Terry Pratchett and Neil Gaiman’s “Good Omens”.

  2. Soon to be a geologist’s dream site…

    http://www.rockoutcrops.webs.com

    Through our site you will be able to:

    1. Submit your own rock outcrops to our database.
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    5. Check out the Geology Links

  3. Hehehe, it’s funny that this theory has managed to last this long, and still be regarded by some as fact. I like the term you used in the beginning of your post “pseudoscience”. I think as long as people have imaginations, these types of things will exist, and it’s very interesting to read different theories, and hear different stories regarding hollow earth. I was actually googling hollow earth blogs, and that’s how I came across your post.

    I’ve been intrigued by the whole idea after watching this independent sci fi movie, and getting into the whole theory of hollow earth. It’s called Chronicles of Hollow Earth: The Next Race, it’s quite neat. It deals with these superhumans called Ghen who enslave mankind from hollow earth. Kind of strays from the basic hollow earth theories, but interesting nonetheless! If you guys are interested, check out http://www.youtube.com/thenextrace 🙂

  4. Fringe, for anyone that’s seen it, is all about pseudoscience. I wonder if the hollow earth theory will pop up there.

    Matt – I haven’t heard of that movie before, is it any good?

  5. hmm its been a little while since i posted this. i totally forgot about it, hehe. hey delicatante, to answer your question. yes, the movie was very good. lol, and if u happen upon this posting again, i highly recommend ordering the dvd off the website!

  6. That monument is in the city of Hamilton. I’ve driven by it more times than I can count having grown up there.

  7. I find it interesting that you call creationism a myth since no one really knows for sure either way. Personally i don’t know who put us here but someone did. evolution doesn’t hold water scientifically. I sure would like to know how the first substance ever came into existance. Pretty sure something didn’t evolve from nothing.

  8. Evolution doesn’t attempt to explain the origins of existence, it simply describes the change of species over time based on geologic, genetic, and observable evidence. There are scientific hypotheses on the origins of simple life, some of which can be replicated.

    One thing on which I’m positive, based on the available evidence, a supreme being didn’t make a man out of mud and a woman from the man’s rib 6000 years ago. Creationists are Bible literalists. They don’t just believe in a supreme creator, they believe that this creator told a man to build a boat with two of every species (even though that would be physically impossible).

    And how is it any different to make a man out of mud than it is to make a one-celled organism out of the primordial ooze. If you ask me, starting with a one-celled organism seems far more realistic and probable, given the amount of time the Earth has been spinning around the sun. And what about Australopithecus “Lucy”… did God make her ancestors out of a male rib too? The bible creation story is a myth, just like all the other creation stories.

  9. Ummm there really is no proof of a thick earth of crust and magma. The incans and the Mayans were much smarter than us and they believed it. Oh and the best scientists of the 20th century believed this theory. German and nazi scientists. The furthest we have dug into the earth is 7.6 miles into it. So we have no visual evidence of a non hollow earth


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